Collaborative filtering is a common technique in which data from a large number of users are used to infer preferences and recommend items to an individual that they may prefer but have not interacted with. Previous approaches have achieved this using a variety of behavioral signals, from dwell time and clickthrough rates to self-reported ratings. However, such signals are mere estimations of the real underlying preferences of the users. Here, we use brain-computer interfacing to infer preferences directly from the human brain. We then utilize these preferences in a collaborative filtering setting and report results from an experiment where brain inferred preferences are used in a neural collaborative filtering framework. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that brain-computer interfacing can provide a viable alternative for behavioral and self-reported preferences in realistic recommendation scenarios. We also discuss the broader implications of our findings for personalization systems and user privacy.

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