Ubiquitous mobile computing have enabled ride-hailing services to collect vast amounts of behavioral data of riders and drivers and optimize supply and demand matching in real time. While these mobility service providers have some degree of control over the market by assigning vehicles to requests, workers are usually free to drive when they are not assigned tasks, and thus need to deal with the uncertainty arising from self-interested driver behavior. If a driver’s behavior can be accurately replicated on the digital twin, more detailed and realistic counterfactual simulations will enable decision making to improve mobility services as well as to validate urban planning. In this work, we formulate the problem of passenger-vehicle matching in a sparsely connected graph and proposed an algorithm to derive an equilibrium policy in a multi-agent environment. Our framework combines value iteration methods to estimate the optimal policy given expected state visitation and policy propagation to compute multi-agent state visitation frequencies. Furthermore, we developed a method to learn the driver’s reward function transferable to an environment with significantly different dynamics from training data. We evaluated the robustness to changes in spatio-temporal supply-demand distributions and deterioration in data quality using a real-world taxi trajectory dataset; our approach significantly outperforms several baselines in terms of imitation accuracy.

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