Next Point-of-Interest recommendation is at the core of various location-based applications. Current state-of-the-art models have attempted to solve spatial sparsity with hierarchical gridding and model temporal relation with explicit time intervals, while some vital questions remain unsolved. Non-adjacent locations and non-consecutive visits provide non- trivial correlations for understanding a user’s behavior, but were rarely considered in previous models. To aggregate all relevant visits from user trajectory and recall the most plausible candidates from weighted representations, here we propose a Spatio-Temporal Attention Network (STAN) for location recommendation. STAN explicitly exploits relative spatio-temporal information of all the check-ins with self-attention layers along the trajectory. This improvement allows a point-to-point interaction between non-adjacent locations and non-consecutive check-ins with explicit spatio-temporal effect. STAN uses a bi-layer self-attention architecture that firstly aggregates spatio-temporal correlation within user trajectory and then recalls the target with consideration of personalized item frequency (PIF). By visualization, we show that STAN is in line with the above intuition. Experimental results unequivocally show that our model outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods by more than 10%.

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